99re久久热最新地址一-Indigenous Venezuelans hosted generations of tourists at a storied nature preserve. Now they and others are shredding the forest in order to survive.

超级人碰人摸大公鸡免费视频-The oil industry, once dominant, is nearly gone. In place of its riches, destitute people now scrape by among the spillage, suffering — without adequate medical care — amid toxic spillage.









秋霞66手机版-Reversals of fortune

  • 2019香蕉国偷产拍视频-These two places symbolized Venezuela’s strength. Now they epitomize its implosion.

    99re久久热最新地址一-Not all that long ago — before the crony socialism that wrecked its economy, before the junta that robbed people of their rights, before the Weimar-level inflation that impoverished its people, before foreigners gave up on coming here — Venezuela had a lot going for it. Among other things, tourism brought a million people and $1 billion per year into the country as visitors came to witness its natural beauty; its oil fields, the most productive in Latin America, enriched generations of Venezuelans.

    99re久久热最新地址一-The advent of Chavismo socialism, beginning with Hugo Chávez’s presidency in 1999, was the beginning of the end for the country’s energy sector, which decayed under mismanagement. And the economy’s collapse after his death finished off the tourism sector. Now, six years of crisis later, one of Latin America’s richest nations has become one of its most impoverished. Corruption and inept governance have stoked hyperinflation. The monthly minimum wage is $2. Hunger is rampant, and few can afford medical care. Some 4 million Venezuelans, one-eighth of the population, have emigrated to flee those conditions.

    秋霞66手机版-And the things Venezuela had going for it? In Maracaibo, the petroleum capital, furloughed and destitute workers scrape by in a region literally awash in crude, since the state oil company doesn’t have money or employees to plug leaks. In Bolivar state, in a nature preserve where tourists once flocked to see Angel Falls, the indigenous Pemon people responsible for its care are ravaging the forest in search of gold — now the only way they can feed their children. The photography of The Washington Post’s Michael Robinson Chavez zooms in on these twin catastrophes as an allegory for Venezuela’s collapse.


    With pickaxes and high-pressure hoses, miners start digging for gold at the edge of Canaima National Park near Parai-Tepui, Venezuela, in May. Parai-Tepui was once a focal point for backpackers and ecotourism. But foreign visitors — and their spending — have dried up amid Venezuela’s political and economic crisis. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

    99re久久热最新地址一-Chapter 1 | El Pauji

    秋霞66手机版-A pristine wilderness, decimated for mines

  • 偷偷要费观看视频在 线-The deafening sound of an engine drowns out the rumble of thunder announcing the beginning of the rainy season. A couple of drops fall on a muddy pond where three children play. Nearby, a bare-chested indigenous man holds a water hose at the mouth of an open mine that is ripping the jungle apart. "Do you know who was against mining?" José Hernández yells over the din. He is standing knee-deep in what used to be a sacred river, now brimming with chemicals and gasoline. "Me!"

    偷偷要费观看视频在 线-The indigenous Pemon people are the original inhabitants of La Gran Sabana, part of a vast nature preserve in the southeast corner of this oil-rich nation. They believe that the land here, which the government gave them control of in 2005, is sacred.

  • 偷偷要费观看视频在 线-But so, too, is survival. The collapse of their country’s economy has pressed them with an impossible choice: leave behind their traditional way of life — crafting, fishing and running a tourism sanctuary — to hunt for gold in their backyards, or starve. So today, they run this mine.

    99re久久热最新地址一-Hernández, 25, once helped operate his mother’s inn here. In the early 2000s, hundreds of people arrived monthly to swim in La Gran Sabana’s crystal-clear rivers, bird-watch or hike its flat-top mountains known as tepuyes. The family made a steady living, and when he turned 18 in 2012, he moved to Zulia state to train as an oil engineer. President Hugo Chávez was still in office.

    99re久久热最新地址一-After his studies, Hernández worked as an intern at the state oil company, PDVSA, but he eventually realized that the company was in trouble. His salary barely paid for two chickens per month. So he returned home in 2017 — and found that everything had changed. Tourism had dried up, and his mother had closed her business. His only choice was a mine. He and his cousins opened theirs last year.

    2019香蕉国偷产拍视频-By extracting gold, Hernández can earn up to $120 some weeks — about 240 times the country’s minimum wage. Gold is considered a lifeline as Venezuela goes through the worst economic crisis in its history; sanctions mostly prevent the country from selling its oil, but 8,000 tons of the precious metal are locked in its earth, some of the largest reserves in the world. To reach it, Hernández has to ravage the land visitors once came to see. “I wouldn’t want to do it,” he says. “I feel responsible for the damage. But what can I do? As an engineer, I will starve.”


  • Junio Alvarez, 25, left, and Wilfer Mejiat, 21, search for diamonds and gold at the edge of Canaima National Park in May. The area’s indigenous people once cared for the land as a sacred space, but now they’re ripping it apart to try to survive their country’s downturn. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

    Miners use a high-pressure hose to erode a riverbank near Canaima National Park. The workers try to keep their locations hidden for fear that the military will seize the mines and ask for a share of the profits. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

    Mining camps like this one are often staffed with a cook. Dilma Fores, right, prepares a meal for workers; like many of the cooks, she came from nearby Brazil. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

    People from northern Venezuela stand on a roadside in El Callao in May, just after getting off a bus. They were among many who have traveled to gold-mining towns in Bolivar state to try to earn a living amid Venezuela’s economic devastation. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

    2019香蕉国偷产拍视频-As recently as 2008, Venezuela generated $1 billion in tourism revenue, according to the World Tourism Organization, and 988,000 people visited the country in 2012, the peak year. They came to see its hundreds of miles of Caribbean coast, its jungles, its deserts and its snow-capped mountains.









    99re久久热最新地址一-Since then, tourism has dropped by more than half, according to the last available data, generating $473 million in 2016; today that revenue is surely even lower. The United States and European nations issued travel warnings as Venezuela entered a crippling economic crisis in 2014, and more than 15 international airlines have stopped flying there. Last year, the country ranked in the bottom six in global tourism growth, according to estimates by the World Travel & Tourism Council.

    99re久久热最新地址一-Some places have been hit especially hard. La Gran Sabana, home to the world’s highest waterfall, Angel Falls, is one of them. This tropical plateau that inspired Arthur Conan Doyle’s “The Lost World” attracted a huge share of Venezuela’s international visitors. In 1998 alone, just before Chávez took office, La Gran Sabana received 150,000 foreigners, who spent about $15 million, according to the local tourism guild. Last year, only 21,000 came, and local vendors didn’t do more than $1 million in business, says Isaam Madi, former president of La Gran Sabana Chamber of Tourism. Inns closed or are waiting out the crisis.

    99re久久热最新地址一-In 2017, an American citizen was the last to show up in El Pauji. “Since then we haven’t received anyone else,” says Elba Benavidez, 53, who used to run a camping site. Today there’s just one barely operable inn, of the 11 there once were in the area. No restaurants remain — only a bakery where the whole town gathers after 5 p.m. And so the caretakers of La Gran Sabana now wreck the place they had vowed to protect.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2019香蕉国偷产拍视频-In some ways, they are following the lead of Caracas. In 2016, hoping to win back international investors, President Nicolás Maduro created the Orinoco Mining Arc, an area bigger than the state of Maine, designated for extracting precious minerals. (The arc crosses the territory of more than 10 indigenous groups, and the maneuver seems to have revoked Pemon control of the land, as it happened without officials consulting them.) The gold rush has kept the country afloat, circumventing U.S. and international sanctions that cut it off from the global financial system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      超级人碰人摸大公鸡免费视频-The Mining Arc runs along the southern bank of the Orinoco, one of the world’s largest rivers, where thousands of indigenous people live. According to SOS Orinoco, a private advocacy group, mining activities wreck the local ecology, causing sedimentation, water pollution, deforestation and the loss of entire ecosystems. And mining has now spread not just through the Orinoco arc but also into protected forest reserves and national parks that once attracted tourists.





                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • 2019香蕉国偷产拍视频-It’s especially true in El Pauji, a hamlet that had long prioritized protecting the wilderness over exploitative mining. “Many indigenous communities that lived from tourism are dedicated exclusively to mining,” Madi says.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Roberto Contreras stands ready to collect money from passersby as his wife, Sorelia Contreras, repairs the main highway near El Dorado in May. They came to the area from El Tigre, about eight hours north, to find work. As Venezuela’s infrastructure falls apart, they heat broken asphalt and use it to repair the dilapidated highway, hoping for donations from passing drivers. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      偷偷要费观看视频在 线-On the unpaved road that leads to and traverses El Pauji, illegal open-pit mines run along each side. They come in all shapes and sizes: from tiny open ponds to massive holes two stories deep. "Directly or indirectly, everyone turns to the mine to survive," laments Alicia Márquez, the 48-year-old mayor.









                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        秋霞66手机版-When she took over two years ago, she tried to push miners out of the hamlet. But now she appreciates the need to keep residents employed. "I can't force them to abandon the mine. As a leader, I have to understand their situation," she says. Márquez says gold helps to pay for teachers' salaries, medicines and food at the local school; 7 percent of total production goes back into the community.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        99re久久热最新地址一-Here, life is expensive. The bolívar, the national currency, is worthless, and goods are paid for in gold or reals, the Brazilian currency. According to experts, mining has helped trigger the nation’s crippling inflation. (Using gold as currency grows the monetary supply.) When a kilo of cornmeal costs 29,000 bolívares in the capital, it can cost more than double in La Gran Sabana. If you don’t have a job in the mine, it’s impossible to pay for it. The high cost of living has led many to leave their jobs. Herminia Rodríguez, 45, who teaches at the local school, says four teachers have left to work in mines this year.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        At a school in Parai-Tepui, someone took the rope from the flagpole to use in a nearby mine. So children carry the Venezuelan national flag at the beginning of the school day. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A broken globe in the library of the Parai-Tepui school shows Venezuela and the rest of South America. School enrollment has plummeted as many families leave the country in search of jobs or older children give up studying to work in nearby gold mines. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Children eat breakfast — corn cakes, called arepas, and some porridge — at the school in Parai-Tepui in May. Many families rely on the school for meals because food stocks are low in the few shops around town. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A family is loaded onto the back of a truck — the only public transportation along this main highway — in Kumarakapay in May. They had run out of food, which is often used to pay for public transit since Venezuela’s currency is nearly worthless. A shopkeeper gave the family some empanadas to use to pay for their 12-hour journey home. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        秋霞66手机版-Red craters and white scars are visible in the vegetation where mining has left open scars in the jungle. “Mining has caused such serious damage that even if the activity were completely stopped this year, it would take at least 50 years to recover the entire area,” says Manuel Díaz, president of the environmental foundation Vida Verde.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        偷偷要费观看视频在 线-For many environmentalists, it’s especially worrying how illegal mining has endangered Canaima National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage site that includes La Gran Sabana. Using satellite imagery, SOS Orinoco identified more than 30 illegal mines inside and along the park’s borders. There are at least 1,899 illegal mines in the country, and about 80 percent of South America’s illicit extraction is in Venezuela, according to a report by the Amazon Geo-Referenced Socio-Environmental Information Network.









                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        偷偷要费观看视频在 线-In many instances, Caracas has rejected new mine permits, but advocates say it does nothing to stop illegal digging. “The government turns a blind eye on it, because the army is making money by controlling the gasoline that miners need to work,” says Javier Mesa, a tourism guide and ornithologist with more than 30 years of experience in the region. “If this situation persists, southern Venezuela could become the largest open mine in the world.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. 超级人碰人摸大公鸡免费视频-At the core of the dispute between those who see mining as their only alternative and those who believe it could cause irreparable damage are two tricky questions: To whom does this land belong? And who or what should be compromised? Most indigenous leaders claim their right to mine, but other locals, environmentalists and tourism workers want to restore their pre-mining lives. “Somehow both parties are right. But indigenous should mine outside the parks because they belong to all Venezuelans, not just to them,” Mesa said.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        99re久久热最新地址一-Caracas is gripped by a civil conflict: Juan Guaidó, the head of the national assembly, says he is the rightful interim leader of Venezuela, but Maduro isn’t relinquishing power. It seems unlikely that stability will return anytime soon and tourists will suddenly start streaming back into Venezuela. But whenever they do, there may not be much jungle left to visit.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Wood smoke fills a kitchen in a half-finished apartment block in Maracaibo, Venezuela, in September. In the country’s second-largest city, once a wealthy oil hub, conditions have deteriorated to the point of collapse. Propane has become too expensive for most residents, who are now gathering wood to use as cooking fuel. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        超级人碰人摸大公鸡免费视频-Chapter 2 | Maracaibo

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2019香蕉国偷产拍视频-When the oil industry collapsed, it took this city with it

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. 2019香蕉国偷产拍视频-This was once a buoyant city, the country's second largest, an oil boomtown. A city of excesses and extravagant wealth, where everything abounded. It was the first city in Venezuela to have phone lines, a regular electrical supply, public transportation, a bank, a brewery and even ice cream pushcarts rolling around, according to a local historian. Oil exploitation began on the shores of the lake here when, in 1922, the first well blew out — turning Venezuela into the world's biggest oil exporter. When Hugo Chávez's socialist rule began in 1999, the nation produced 3.5 million barrels per day. People called this region "the Venezuelan Texas."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        秋霞66手机版-Now almost nothing functions here. There is power for only a few hours a day. The city’s water taps are drying up. Commercial areas look like ghost towns. Buses carrying workers to and from their jobs have disappeared. At night, roads are empty and pitch-black. Nothing is heard, except for the buzz of diesel generators owned by the lucky, wealthy few. In the summer heat, locals sleep on their front porches. And the country’s oil production is just 21 percent of what it was two decades ago, according to a local analyst’s study of OPEC data.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Trash collection has ceased in many Venezuelan cities, leaving streets and neighborhoods awash in garbage. A woman picks through a pile near the central market in Maracaibo in May; even former members of the middle class have resorted to such measures to find something to sell or eat. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A windowless station wagon serves as a bus in a neighborhood in Maracaibo. Once the scene of street soccer matches and lively parties, this neighborhood has lost more than half of its population. Water is scarce, and some areas of the city have not had electrical service for months. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Maria Mendez, 69, who suffers from asthma and arthritis and cannot afford medical care, stands outside the shack where she lives in Cabimas, Venezuela. She tries using plants and herbs to help her deal with the pain. The country’s medical system has been devastated by the economic and political meltdown. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Rain falls on pedestrians and empty food carts on a May morning in Maracaibo. After then-President Hugo Chávez nationalized oil companies in 2009, the city’s once-booming economy started its steep decline. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        99re久久热最新地址一-The collapse has been underway for more than five years. In interviews, 10 current and former employees of PDVSA, the state oil company, blame scant investment, corruption, lack of maintenance and politicization of the industry. Things took a turn in 2009, they say, after Chávez nationalized dozens of local oil service companies around Lake Maracaibo. From that moment, the drills began to peter out. Damaged equipment was never replaced, and production began to fell drastically.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        超级人碰人摸大公鸡免费视频-Even though this region has more oil in the ground than all of Brazil, and more than double what’s in Mexico, workers have been furloughed, and the entire economy supporting them — equipment-repair companies, divers, restaurants, gas stations, truckers — has imploded. Meanwhile, as rigs lie fallow and untended, petroleum is leaking into marshlands and fisheries here, imperiling the people most impoverished by the end of the oil boom. On top of all this, Washington imposed sanctions in January, closing off not just the world’s markets to Venezuelan crude but also any hope for recovery.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Children play on the oil-covered shores of Lake Maracaibo south of Cabimas in May. Cabimas, one of the country’s oil centers, is suffering from a near-total collapse of its infrastructure. Dozens of ruptured pipes are releasing oil and gas into Lake Maracaibo, oil leaks on land are common, and fish stocks are contaminated. (Michael Robinson Chavez/The Washington Post)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        超级人碰人摸大公鸡免费视频-Taking a stroll around Lake Maracaibo, a 5,000-square-mile estuary that opens onto the Gulf of Venezuela, means encountering a junkyard of rusting equipment. Hundreds of half-sunken barges and speedboats are piled up near oil ports. Broken platforms in the middle of the water barely balance in place. Abandoned dockyards and drilling rigs are plentiful.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        99re久久热最新地址一-For years, the oil sector offered the highest wages in the country. Employees and their families lived in tony suburbs. “PDVSA was wonderful, everyone dreamed of working there,” says Jose Oxiarty, who used to manage company transportation on the lake. He is sitting in a shadowy, almost-deserted shopping mall during what was already an hour-long power outage, trying to remember the halcyon days.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        秋霞66手机版-Oil fields

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